Chaps 1-3Characters: Lockwood and Heathcliff

1. The novel has a first-person narrator named Lockwood. Describe what you know about the narrator from the first chapters. What is he like? What mistakes in judgment does he make–in terms of the place, his visit to the place,  Heathcliff and the others’ identities?
2. Why is Lockwood so interested in Heathcliff?  Why does he pay the second visit if he is not welcome in the first (thinking that he himself is “sociable” p. 7)?  He said that Heathcliff “love and hate, equally under cover. . . ” and then acknowledge them as his own attributes.  Do you find it true, considering, for instance, how he deals with the ghost of Catherine?  (We will compare and contrast Lockwood and Heathcliff more when we talk about the novel as a whole.)
3. Emily Bronte liked dogs.  How are the dogs presented here and how does Lockwood deal with them?
4. We get to see Heathcliff first from Lockwood’s perspective and then in Catherine’s diary (chap 3).  How would you characterize the Heathcliff old and young?  What more do we know about bout the Earnshaw family from Catherine’s diary.
5. The third aspect of Heathcliff: Heathcliff’s call to Catherine gets Lockwood, and us, more curious about their past.  How else does Lockwood respond to Heathcliff’s emotional outburst?   And you?
6. The other characters: The second generation Hareton and Catherine will play a more important role later on.

Chaps 1-3 Settings & the Gothic

1. The appearance of the ghost is part of what makes Wuthering Heights a gothic novel.  Look up the terms “gothic” and “gothic novel.” What are the characteristics of gothic literature? Which of those characteristics do you see in the first chapters of the novel?  How does the setting of the novel relate to its gothic quality?  Is the place Wuthering Heights one?

8 Responses to “Wuthering Heights”
  1. lucas says:

    1. The novel has a first-person narrator named Lockwood. Describe what you know about the narrator from the first chapters. What is he like? What mistakes in judgment does he make–in terms of the place, his visit to the place, Heathcliff and the others’ identities?

    Mr. Lockwood rents one of Mr Heathcliff’s properties and is a quiet man who does not enjoy the company of others.
    When Mr. Lockwood visits Wuthering Heights he sees the place as placid and Barren and expects his visit to be welcomed and accepted, when in fact it is unexpected and unappreciated. Mr. Lockwood initially thinks of Mr. Heathcliff as a gentleman, quiet like himself and a good host when he is a sullen, angry and bad-tempered man. He also thinks the other inhabitants of Wuthering Heights will be kind to him and everyone neglects his presence and is rude to him.

    2. Why is Lockwood so interested in Heathcliff?
    Lockwood is interested in Heathcliff because he initially thinks that he and Heathcliff are similar, and he is a strange gentleman but also seems to have an interesting past and has dark skin and is wild-looking.

    Why does he pay the second visit if he is not welcome in the first (thinking that he himself is “sociable” p. 7)?
    Lockwood does not plan to visit on the second day, but the weather is cold and wet and his house is being cleaned so he decides to return to the interesting Wuthering Heights. He thinks that he is a sociable character and that his return will be appreciated even though he was not welcome the day before.

    He said that Heathcliff “love and hate, equally under cover. . . ” and then acknowledge them as his own attributes. Do you find it true, considering, for instance, how he deals with the ghost of Catherine? (We will compare and contrast Lockwood and Heathcliff more when we talk about the novel as a whole.)

    Heathcliff shows attributes of both love and hate when he treats Lockwood and his family rudely and then when Catherine’s ghost appears to him he acts lovingly.

    3. Emily Bronte liked dogs. How are the dogs presented here and how does Lockwood deal with them?
    The dogs are presented in a dark and protective way in Wuthering Heights and Lockwood does initially takes kindly to the dogs, but when they get protective and aggressive towards him, he dislikes them and is attacked by them.

    4. We get to see Heathcliff first from Lockwood’s perspective and then in Catherine’s diary (chap 3). How would you characterize the Heathcliff old and young? What more do we know about bout the Earnshaw family from Catherine’s diary.
    The young Heathcliff was a quiet, tough, resilient and respectful character but at the end of the diary entry we see him use his adoptive father’s love and favour to get what he wants which shows attributes that come out strongly in the older Heathcliff as an angry, vengeful man. The Earnshaw were the original owners of Wuthering Heights and were a kind and loving family until Heathcliff’s presence tears their family apart and lose control resulting in Heathcliff’s ownership of the property.

    5. The third aspect of Heathcliff: Heathcliff’s call to Catherine gets Lockwood, and us, more curious about their past. How else does Lockwood respond to Heathcliff’s emotional outburst? And you?
    Lockwood sees Heathcliff’s outburst as a sign of weakness and is embarrassed for him but becomes more curious about the history of the family. Heathcliff’s actions made me a lot more curious about his past and also as more sensitive than he first seemed.

    6. The other characters: The second generation Hareton and Catherine will play a more important role later on.

    Chaps 1-3 Settings & the Gothic

    1. The appearance of the ghost is part of what makes Wuthering Heights a gothic novel. Look up the terms “gothic” and “gothic novel.” What are the characteristics of gothic literature? Which of those characteristics do you see in the first chapters of the novel? How does the setting of the novel relate to its gothic quality? Is the place Wuthering Heights one?

    Characteristics of gothic novels are: Setting in a castle, An atmosphere of mystery and suspense, Omens, portents, visions, Supernatural or otherwise inexplicable events, High, even overwrought emotion, Women in distress, Women threatened by a powerful, impulsive, tyrannical male, The metonymy of gloom and horror.
    The story of Wuthering Heights fits almost all of the Gothic criteria with a castle-like dark setting, mystery and suspense, a supernatural event, overwrought emotion of Heathcliff, women in distress; threatened by a tyrannical male and the metonym of gloom and horror.
    The setting of the novel definitely has gothic qualities being set in a dark, gloomy and lonely place and the place of Wuthering Heights itself as a dark, castle-like place.

  2. Jack says:

    1. Lockwood comes across as a totally normal an average person. At first he likens himself to Heathcliff but then is offended by Heathcliff’s disposition toward him and the other occupants of the household. He also offends the occupants of the household when he mistakes Cathy for both Heathcliff and Hareton’s wife, so one could say that he has quite poor judgement. Lockwood also seems like a gossiper, as he is keen to find out all he can about the inhabitants of Wuthering Heights.
    2. Lockwood is interested in Heathcliff because he finds him to be an intriguing and intelligent character. Lockwood pays a second visit because his plan of what to do otherwise that afternoon was disrupted.
    3. Heathcliff is shown to be capable of both love and hate in his treatment of the occupants of WH and his lament over the ghost of Cathy.
    4. So far in the novel dogs are represented as vicious, obedient and loyal guardians. Lockwood is wary of the dogs, as he does not wish to be harmed by them, because of this he leaves them alone.
    5. Old Heathcliff seems like an angry and irritable man that has experienced great loss and is quite emotionally and socially unstable. Young Heathcliff is abused, neglected and reserved. We know (from the diary) that Heathcliff was loved by Mr Earnshaw and hated and abused by Hindley.
    6. Lockwood is slightly disturbed by Heathcliff’s outburst and also intrigued. My response to Heatchliff’s show of emotion was similar to that of Lockwood.
    7. The characteristics of gothic literature include: the supernatural world, death, love, evil and doom/doomed love. All of these elements are seen in the first few chapters of WH. The ghost of Cathy being death and supernatural, Heathcliff’s reaction shows love, Hindley may represent evil and from what we are told by Nelly, Cathy and Heathcliff’s love was doomed. The setting of Wuthering Heights is fairly gothic as it is set on desolate moors, with harsh and dangerous weather and WH itself has a foreboding feeling about it.

  3. Tristan G says:

    1. Lockwood the first person narrator of Wuthering Heights is seemed as a man people would follow in the text and through him we find out the story of Wuthering heights. He is seemed mutual in the text and has no real purpose other than to tell the story and to figure out the story. We see he has a poor judgement with how he addresses the patrons of Wuthering heights and Heathcliff and how he becomes attached to even though he was unwelcome.
    2Lockwood is interested in Heathcliff and decides to return back to Wuthering heights even though he is unwelcome. Lockwood thinks of himself as a sociable a likable charachter and decides to go back there because of these reasons but just makes things worse between the two.
    Heathcliff shows both love and hate in chapter two with how he treats Lockwood with hate in the second chapter and the ghost of Catherines when he is asking for her to come in he shows love.
    3. Lockwood orriginally liked the dogs and they are shown as protective territorial gaurdians of the house of Wuthering heights and the view is shifted when Lockwood is attack and from then on the dogs are feared and seen as dangerous creatures in this novel.
    4. the older Heathclff is seen as a cranky vengeful and spiteful man as shown from the text. However the younger Heathcliff showes a resiliant young child who was bullied and never complained and when he arrived as an orphan to the Earnshaw family and is seen to tear them apart until he ends up owning the household and this shows the quality of his later manipulative life.
    5. Heathcliffs actions towards the ghost of Catherine made lockwood even more curios than he already was about the family. It also made him uncertain about the man Heathcliff is and doesn’t understand the position he is in. During this scene i questioned the strength and position of Lockwood and I was so uncertain that I had to go back and make sure it was the same ruthless person from before. I also did not understand the position Heathcliff had over Catherine.
    6.?
    1-3 setting. The whole place is set in north England in the moors. The first chapter is set in the household of Wuthering heights wear the Earnshaws live. This house is an old classic dark setting and quite gothic. The other setting in these chapters is the house of Thrushcross Grove is the complete opposite to Wuthering heights in how it is light, modern, has cultivated gardens and seems cleaner and more civilised than that of the Earnshaws home.

  4. Sam Bullen says:

    Wuthering Heights Questions
    Chapter 1
    1. Lockwood seems like an everyday, reasonable person. However, he is confronted with Heathcliff and their attitudes and manner. It is bad judgement on his part to go somewhere like Wuthering Heights to get away.
    2. He pays Heathcliff a second visit because he is interested in him. Heatthcliff is unlike anything he has ever come across. Lockwood deals with the ghost badly, which suggests that it is true because his hate comes out from under cover.
    3. The dogs are represented as these savage beasts in the book. This is unusual considering that Emily Bronte like dogs. Lockwood deals with them badly because he is scared of them.
    4. The old Heathcliff is completely different to the young Heathcliff. The old Heatchliff is this sour, bitter old man who has had a hard life. However, the young Heathcliff is young and yet to learn lifes hard lessons, so he is not so bitter.
    5. Lockwood is shocked by Heathcliff’s emotional outburst because until now he has been very reserved. As a reader I was also a little shocked at the extent of his emotional outburst.
    6.

    Chapter 2

    1. Lockwood’s light personality contrasts heavily with the doom and gloom of Heathcilff and co. This contrast creates some light relief. His personality is revealed that he is a reasonable man and curious.
    2. Lockwood is a normal, happy person while the inhabitants of the Wuthering heights are very pessimistic and negative. These aspects contrast with each other.
    3. Hareton Enshaw is contradictory because he is sloppy and stupid. However, he introduces himself with dignity
    4. Suspense is builded up by the fact that Lockwood can’t leave the premises. Also the setting contributes to the suspense ie There is a storm outside and they are in some big old house. This climaxes in Lockwood seeing the ghost.

    Chaper 3
    1. The ghost is the main gothic element of this chapter. This supernatural element is very gothic. It is very dramatic when Heathcliff runs in and this is also gothic.
    2. Catherine Enshaw’s diary gives and interesting perspective into what Heathcliff was like as a child. It also gives a background on the characters and where they have come from. So when Lockwood tells Heathcliff about his path it is a bit of a shock to him.
    3. Hindley dotes on France and spoils him rotten. While Catherine and Heathcliff love each other. There relationships contrast with each other because Catherine and Heathcliff truly love each other while Hindley and Frances don’t.
    4. Heathcliff is shown to be very distressed when he hears of Lockwood’s dream. This is because he and Catherine have lots of past history and he wants he back. He hasn’t seen her in years and this is a shock to him.
    5. Again the setting contributes and as Lockwood is reading the past stories this gives the reader the sense that something big is about to happen. IT does in the form of the ghost. Also the pace speeds up with the suspense.

    Chapter 4
    1. Bronte chooses to change narrator so that the reader sees the story from more then one perspective. It has an unusual feel, however, it works well. Nelly is a different narrator to Lockwood. Nelly tells the story plain and straight, however, Lockwood gives far more insight into the emotions that he is feeling.
    2. Young Heathclif is shown as this hardened, sullen boy. He doesn’t say much and gives of the impression of being peculiar, but still strong.
    3. I have more sympathy for Heatchcliff in this chapter because Hindley torments him and his jealous of him. It is the natural human reaction to feel sympathy for the oppressed.

    Chapter 5
    1. We learn that Cathy is a high-spirited young girl. She is always singing, laughing and plaguing everybody who did not do the same. She is wild, happy child.
    2. Nellie thinks that Joseph is the wearimest, self-righteous Pharisee. She thinks that she is trying to gain favour with the master by reading to him from the bible.
    3. Emily Bronte portrays good through Cathy and bad through the death of the master. Cathy is this happy, spirited young child and good shines through this. While, the death of Old Mr Enshaw is strikingly the bad element of this chapter.

    Chapter 6
    1. Frances Earnshaw does not seem to fit in at Wuthering heights. This, coupled with the fact that they don’t take to foreigners at Wuthering heights gives the reader the impression that Frances will not last long.
    2. After the death of Old Mr Earnshaw, Hindley became master. He treated Heathcliff horribly and Cathy didn’t like this. So they would run away to the moors for days one end. Where, they became very close friends.
    3. The Linton children are portrayed as these clean, perfect little children. The contrasts significantly with the grubbiness and state of Heathcliff and Cathy.
    4. This is an important narrative device because it gives the reader the sense that Nellie could be a biased narrator because she and Heathcliff are close.

  5. Sam Bullen says:

    Chapter 7
    1. After Catherine comes back from Thrushcross Grange she and Heathcliff have a damaged relationship. Heathcliff feels embarrassed when he is around Catherine because she is clean and civilised. However, Heathcliff on the other hand is dirty and grubby. So they are suddenly awkward around each other.
    2. As a reader I feel more sympathy for Heathcliff then Nellie does. Heathcliff is in a bad position and is treated awfully by Hindley.
    3. Edgar Linton is portrayed as this pompous, handsome Gentleman. He is well spoken and polite. This contrasts with Heathcliff’s appearance and manner.
    4. No Nellie is wrong in this judgement of Cathy. Nellie has a very biased opinion on Cathy because she doesn’t like her. There are many examples of having feelings. She feels enormous loyalty to her childhood playmate Heathcliff. The assessment that she is selfish is evident, when she marries Edgar instead of Heathcliff so that she will be better off financially. However, there are many examples where Cathy does show emotion.
    5. This reminds the reader that the story is being told through Lockwood, not directly from Nellie.
    Chapter 8
    1. The Doctor is honest in his assessment of Frances. However, as usual his professional medical opinion is foolishly ignored.
    2. It is understandable that Heathcliff turns out the way he does. He suffers horrible treatment at the hands of Hindley. This would obviously have an adverse effect on the development of his personality into adulthood.
    3. As a reader I had little sympathy for Hindley. He is a cruel, harsh and treats Heathcliff despicably. His furious denial the Frances is going to do doesn’t help his cause; because of this his character becomes less likable.
    4. Nellie mocks Cathy because she is ridiculously two faced. She is a completely different person when she is hanging around Edgar, to when she is hanging around Heathcliff. Nellie thinks that Cathy is very proud and hopelessly tries to hide from her mockeries. Nellie’s ill feeling towards Cathy is justified because Cathy acts very two faced.
    5. Heathcliff and Edgar are complete opposites of each other. Edgar is fair, clean, well mannered and handsome. Heathcliff, however, is dark, rough, grubby and impolite. Heathcliff although, is very strong and resilient, while Edgar is a weak. Theses characters are complete opposites and they contrast starkly with each other.

  6. Andrew G says:

    1) Lockwood is an outsider from the city. It is obvious that he is not used to the environment on the moors, or the ways of the people who live there. At the beginning of chapter two, Lockwood remarks that they ‘could not comprehend my request that I might be served at five’ which was a habit that marked him out as a southerner. We also see, at the end of the first chapter and through the second that Mr Lockwood is taken aback at the seeming rudeness of the members of the house. Their eccentricity confuses him. After being attacked by Mr Heathcliff’s dogs, he is obviously flustered. He finds Mr Heathcliff most unobliging, and his household worse. He makes the mistake of coming out before the start of a snowstorm. He doesn’t understand the weather patterns and doesn’t recognise that it would trap him at Wuthering Heights overnight. At dinner, Mr Lockwood mistakes Heathcliff’s daughter-in-law for his wife, and then for Hareton Earnshaw’s wife. Mr Lockwood obviously does not understand the landscape or its peoples’ customs. His outsider status is made very clear in the first chapters.

    2) There seems to be something about Heathcliff that Lockwood finds very compelling. “It is astonishing how sociable I feel myself compared to him” seems to give Lockwood away as someone who is not normally very sociable (as he is surprised in himself), but not being social, and still wanting to return, even if he felt like an intruder, means that he must have found something attractive in Wuthering Heights. Lockwood seems to be freer to express his strong sentiments – those of love and hate – than Heathcliff.

    3) Dogs are introduced in the first chapter, where they attack Mr Lockwood. The dogs are pretty vicious. They take an instant disliking to Mr Lockwood, and while Heathcliff and Joseph are out of the room, the whole brood, led by the mother, attack Mr Lockwoods’ feet and legs. Mr Lockwood is not expecting this reception. His initial reaction to the dog is to stroke it. His efforts to stop the frenzy are useless, and it is only the woman from the kitchen who is able to restore calm.

    4) Catherine’s description on Mr Heathcliff gives the impression that he was quite likable, a bit of a rebel, but someone who was beaten down by Hindly. By the time Mr Lockwood meets him, he is severe, withdrawn and has somewhat of a nasty air about him. His reaction to the appearance of the growth suggests that this character is to bottle up his emotions. Catherine is a member of the Earnshaw family (Earnshaw is her last name).

    5) Mr Lockwood is curious as to Catherine’s identity, but is angry at himself for having listened to Healthcliff. It is obvious from what he says that he has wanted Catherine to return for a long time. He is disappointed, I think, that she arrived when Mr Lockwood was in the room. My response was one of sadness that the night when the ghost who Mr Heathcliff wanted to return appeared, was the night when a stranger was staying in the room. Heathcliff’s response was one of desperation.

    1) http://www.virtualsalt.com/gothic.htm says that there are nine features of the gothic novel.
    a) Setting in a castle – While withering heights is not a castle as such, it is a haunted mansion, and it does have dark, and mysterious passages and rooms
    b) An atmosphere of mystery and suspense – The odd ways of the inhabitants of Wuthering Heights creates a feeling of mystery. Suspense is built dramatically, especially before the appearance of the ghost.
    c) An ancient prophecy – in Wuthering heights, although not a ‘real’ prophesy, this could come in the form of Catherine’s diary that Lockwood reads before the ghost appears.
    d) Omens, portents and visions – not a strong part in the opening of Wuthering heights, especially because this part of the text is at the end of the story.
    e) Supernatural or otherwise inexplicable events – a great example is the appearance of the ghost of Catherine to Lockwood.
    f) High, even overwrought emotion – Emotion plays a big part in this story, especially the passion between Catherine and Heathcliff and the rage Heathcliff.
    g) Women in distress – Catherine seems to be in distress when she appears as a ghost. ‘Let me in’ she whines.
    h) Women threatened by a powerful, impulsive and tyrannical male – Power relations plays a large part in the narrative. Heathcliff becomes tyrannical, and Frances’ husband is tyrannical over the family. He is even describes as ‘tyrannical’.
    i) The metonymy of gloom and horror – In Wuthering Heights the weather is the best example. The weather is always oppressive, cold, windy and keeps the characters in doors. On the night of the appearance of the ghost, the wind is howling, and the snow is falling.

  7. Andrew G says:

    Wuthering Heights study questions.

    Chapter 2
    1. Identify the light-relief that Lockwood as narrator brings to this chapter. What else is revealed about his personality?
    The ‘light-relief’ comes about from Lockwood’s ineptitude to the environment in which he’s placed. He struggles to deal with the dogs in the first chapter, and doesn’t understand the seeming hard and unfriendly welcome he gets. He is greeted in a tone that sounded as though he were being told to “go to the deuce!” in chapter one. Chapter follows this ineptitude, with Mr Lockwood misinterpreting the significance of the weather. Moreover, his tussles with the family in order to persuade them to tell him the way or give him a guide have a humorous element. His mistaking the family members, and their responses also provide light-relief. Lockwood identifies himself as not being particularly social, but more so that his hosts.

    2. What contrasts are made between Lockwood and the inhabitants of Wuthering Heights?
    Lockwood is a gentleman, brought up in London. His attempts to carry these traditions to Wuthering heights creates a major contrast between him, and the inhabitants of the house. Those who live in Wuthering Heights are rough, and do not follow the same customs. While Lockwood bows to Mrs Heathcliff, she does not acknowledge it, or invite him to sit down. You get the sense that the family has had some ‘history’ and there is a fair amount of animosity behind them. This is contrasted with Lockwoods attempts to be polite and make conversation. This belief the reader develops sets them up for the rest of the story.

    3. What contradictory elements are revealed in the character of Hareton Earnshaw?
    While Hareton is a man who is bordering on ‘repulsive’, he introduces him slef with dignity. He is sloppy, dirty and someone that people generally don’t want to deal with, yet he ‘councils’ Lockwood to ‘respect’ him.

    4. How is suspense built up in this chapter?
    Suspense is built through the development of characters. The characters have a lack of ability to be kind, friendly, hospitable, accommodating or communicative. The family rejects all attempts Lockwood makes to break into the family circle. The development of the characters who live in Wuthering Heights gives you the feeling that there is history, and that there is something about the family that they are not telling Lockwood. It is this unknown that is suspenseful for the audience.

    Chapter 3
    1. Identify the Gothic elements in this chapter.
    • Setting is gothic. Dark passages, unknown rooms in a large mansion (castle)
    • An Atmosphere of suspense.
    • Omens, supernatural events – the ghost
    • Woman in distress – in this case in the form of a ghost
    • High emotion- fright, distress
    • Tyrranical men – Francis is described as a ‘tyrant’.

    2. What does Catherine Earnshaw’s diary add to the narrative?
    Catherine’s diary fills in some of the ‘history’ that I have mentioned before. It talks about the family members from many years before. It allows the reader to piece together events from the night before. It also gives the reader information that will become relevant later on, especially at the appearance of the ghost.

    3. How does the portrayal of Hindley and Frances’ relationship contrast with the love between Heathcliff and Cathy?
    Hindley and Frances are seen sitting together (Frances on Hindley’s lap) kissing and ‘talking nonesence by the hour’. Heathcliff and Cathy have obviously been kept apart. They have not been so happy together.

    4. How is the extent of Heathcliff’s anguish revealed when he hears of Lockwood’s “dream”?
    Heathcliff, when he comes into the room, tries to hold his emotion down, but as soon as Lockwood leaves, he breaks down. He calls out to the ghost and begs her to come back. He indicates that he has been waiting for that night for many years. He is obviously very distressed. He has been tormented for years.

    5. How is suspense built up in this chapter?
    In this chapter the setting becomes important for suspense. Lockwood finds himself in a dark upstairs room that a mysterious person has lead him to. He is in a strange house, with strange customs. There is a storm raging outside, and he has just read stories, which happen to be stacked in his bed, about a strange girl’s past life. The suspense builds further when the branch outside begins banging on the glass window, and then the ghost appears. Supernatural things always add a large element of suspense. Its then the unknown about what Heathcliff’s reaction will be that is suspenseful. It is however the appearance of the ghost that is the climax of the chapter.

    Chapter 4
    1. Why does Emily Brontë choose to change narrators in this chapter? Contrast Nellie and Lockwood’s narrative styles.
    While Lockwood allows Brontë to tell the story from the perspective of a newcomer at the end of the story, Nellie’s purpose is to tell the history of the story. In this way Brontë is able to introduce the story out of chronological order. Lockwood gives a fresh view at the end of a long and involved story, and slowly details are revealed through his reading and through Nellie.

    2. What picture is built up of the young Heathcliff in this chapter? Why does Nellie liken his history to that of a cuckoo? (You will need to look up cuckoo to answer this question – what did people believe about cuckoos?)
    Heathcliff is portrayed as being a bit wild with but strong and well nurtured. Heathcliff grew up to be stronger, both physically and in personality that Earnshaw’s own son. This is why he has been likened to a Cukoo. Some varieties of cukoo lay their eggs in the nests of other birds. The mother nurtures the cuckoo when it hatched (she thinks he bird is her own) and the other birds in the nest die. Heathcliff has grown up in another nest, and has grown to be stronger than the children who belong there.

    3. Do you have more sympathy for Hindley or Heathcliff in this chapter? Why?
    Hindley is obviously much worse off that Heathcliff. Heathcliff is favoured. From this favouritism grows a feeling of superiority. He is able to bully Hindley to give over his horse. The reader is lead to sympathise with Hindley.

    Chapter 5
    1. What do we learn of the young Cathy in this chapter?
    Cathy was always in high spirits. She drove anyone she was with up the wall. He constant speaking, singing, high energy and mischief sent her family to their wits end. She was more than their patience could take.

    2. What is Nellie’s opinion of Joseph?
    Nellie didn’t have a high opinion of Joseph. ‘He was’, she said, ‘the wearisomest, self-righteous Pharisee that ever ransacked a Bible. His over-the-top and sacrilegious dealings with the spiritual side of life was what her complaint her complaints had to do with.

    3. How does Emily Brontë portray the idea of good and evil in this chapter?
    Through juxtaposition, Brontë is able to bring out the ideas of good and evil in the characters she develops. Heathcliff has dark tempers. Cathy is naughty, but everyone humours old Earnshaw, and at the end of the chapter the children console each other. Earnshaws relationship with Heathcliff is also good. Jospeh tries to preach goodness from the bible, but succeeds in spreading bad. He was describe as a ‘Pharisee’.

    Chapter 6

    1. “We don’t in general take to foreigners here”. From what you know so far of Wuthering Heights, coupled with Nellie’s hints, what leads us to believe that Frances Earnshaw won’t “last long” at the Heights?
    Wuthering Heights is a hard place, and the family is a hard circle to crack. Mr Lockwood tried with very little success. Nellie says that nobody felt the urge to ‘sympathise with her’. They did not immediately take to each other, and so she would not last long, was Nellie’s prediction. Apart from tha, she was not well – in fact she was quite sick.

    2. Explain the circumstances that encourage Heathcliff and Cathy to grow even closer in this chapter. Describe their relationship.
    Catherine and Heathcliff become very close in this chapter. Heathcliff had been sent to work in the field. Catherine taught what she learnt. The way the both escaped was to run out on the moors for whole days at a time. They had become inseparable. One particular set of circumstances caused the two to run into trouble. They were banished for the living room, so they went to Thrushcross Grange

    3. How are the Linton children contrasted with Cathy and Heathcliff in this chapter?
    The Lintons are enclosed in a close home life. They believe that civilization is important. They can’t believe that the Earnshaw girl was out with the horrible gypsy man who was not fit to be in a house. Even so, they are fighting. Cathy and Heathcliff are wild on the moors but they are madly in love with each other.

    4. Nellie is Heathcliff’s confidante in this chapter. Why is this an important narrative device in the novel?
    There are two reasons. It gives Nellie some authority as the narrator. She was quite close to the action. The other reason is that it allowed her to comment on what Heathcliff thought. It wasn’t just speculation resulting from observation, it was speculation based on what he had confided in her.

  8. James Kirk says:

    Chapter 1
    1. The novel has a first-person narrator named Lockwood. Describe what you know about the narrator from the first chapters. What is he like? What mistakes in judgment does he make–in terms of the place, his visit to the place, Heathcliff and the others’ identities?
    Lockwood is a serious but not all-together dreary man. He has a strong sense of curiosity about him in which he is keen to uncover the mysteries of Wuthering Heights and the inhabitants in the area. When Lockwood first arrives at Wuthering Heights Heathcliff and the other inhabitants of Wuthering Heights greet him less than cordially. As such he makes several misjudgments of the inhabitants nature and is subtly abused for them.
    2. Why is Lockwood so interested in Heathcliff? Why does he pay the second visit if he is not welcome in the first (thinking that he himself is “sociable” p. 7)? He said that Heathcliff “love and hate, equally under cover… ” And then acknowledge them as his own attributes. Do you find it true, considering, for instance, how he deals with the ghost of Catherine? (We will compare and contrast Lockwood and Heathcliff more when we talk about the novel as a whole.)
    Lockwood at first visit sees Heathcliff as a good strong man and is intrigued by his character of a strange mixture of “love and hate”, thus he returns to be sociable with the inhabitants at Wuthering Heights. The balance of love and hate that Lockwood acknowledges as an attribute of Heathcliff and himself isn’t quite as balanced in Heathcliff as it might appear. While Lockwood is very balanced and controlled with his emotions, Heathcliff is completely different. Almost all the time in public he displays only an intense hatred for everything. However. When he is left to his own devices, like in chapter 3 after the ghost incident, he displays an intense side of him concerning love.
    3. Emily Bronte liked dogs. How are the dogs presented here and how does Lockwood deal with them?
    Dogs are represented in the form of Heathcliff’s dog which savages Lockwood in the 2nd chapter and then again in the 3rd. Lockwood calls for help from the nearest people. The dog, although having attacked Lockwood and won a scowl from him was doing its job of guarding the house from strangers, of which Lockwood was definitely one. The text displays dogs as savage and mindless, completely the opposite of what Emily thought of dogs.
    4. We get to see Heathcliff first from Lockwood’s perspective and then in Catherine’s diary (chap 3). How would you characterize the Heathcliff old and young? What more do we know about bout the Earnshaw family from Catherine’s diary.
    
Young Heathcliff is a person capable of outwardly displaying love, hate and any array of emotions. He has a sense of fun and adventure about he and is although his hatred for Hindley is intense he endures silently the constant abuse from him. Older Heathcliff is outwardly a man immersed in hatred and seriousness. Although deep inside of him he harbours a passionate love for Catherine and a constant nightmare of losing her. We learn that Heathcliff is an adopted son. Mr. Earnshaw passes away and Hindley the much an older brother to Catherine, is left in charge of Wuthering Heights. Hindley is completely against Heathcliff and treats him almost worse than he would a slave.
    5. The third aspect of Heathcliff: Heathcliff’s call to Catherine gets Lockwood, and us, more curious about their past. How else does Lockwood respond to Heathcliff’s emotional outburst? And you? 

    Seeing the emotional outburst through Lockwood’s eyes l feel forced to see it as he did, and respond to in a likeness. Just like Lockwood I’d b curious as to why Heathcliff had suddenly changed at the sound of the name Catherine Earnshaw and be interested to find out why such a name would cause such a big reaction and a complete polarization of character on Heathcliff’s behalf.
    6. The other characters: The second generation Hareton and Catherine will play a more important role later on.
    ???

    Chapter 2

    1. Identify the light-relief that Lockwood as narrator brings to this chapter. What else is revealed about his personality?

    On arriving at Wuthering Heights, Mr. Lockwood is tossed into a world of darkness and mystery. From the very beginning everything about Wuthering heights from the building itself to the people that live in it gives a sense to the reader through Mr. Lockwood of being a very uninviting place. Mr. Lockwood as a lighter character in the story acts as a rose amongst the thorns, even if only a half-hearted rose. Mr. Lockwood, although in his own way a rather serious and hard man, is fairly likable, enough so to relate with and see his logical point of view on matters.

    2. What contrasts are made between Lockwood and the inhabitants of Wuthering Heights?

    Lockwood tries to be polite and start conversation throughout the chapter, but the people of Wuthering heights are ignorant of his attempts at conversation and take what he says as insults more than anything else. The inhabitants are unforgiving and irrational where as Lockwood is a rational, logical person attempting to be polite.

    3. What contradictory elements are revealed in the character of Hareton Earnshaw?

    Hareton Earnshaw although coming across as the same or similar kind of man as Heathcliff is quite different in many respects. Hareton was born of the man whom practically enslaved Heathcliff. When Hindley died, Heathcliff became like a father to Hareton and thus Hareton took on many of his outwardly appearances and mannerisms however his heart is different in that it goes against the outward appearance and shows his true self which thankfully is probably more like his mothers, than his fathers. The main difference between Hareton and Heathcliff is that Heathcliff grew up being corrupted and by Hindley and as a result his heart became unstable on the inside and blackened on the outside. Hareton’s heart is pure on the inside and has taken the appearance of a darkened one on the outside.

    4. How is suspense built up in this chapter?

    Suspense is built up through Lockwood continually making suggestions about the life stories of the Wuthering Heights inhabitants and continuously getting them wrong ending in the inhabitants needing to correct him and becoming gradually more and more agitated with him.

    Chapter 3

    1. Identify the Gothic elements in this chapter.

    The main and foreboding Gothic element in this chapter is the ghost at the window. However little things leading up to that moment are what added to the major Gothic scene. These things included the reading by candlelight about a boy terrorized by his brother and then a tapping at the window by a tree branch.

    2. What does Catherine Earnshaw’s diary add to the narrative?

    Catherine Earnshaw’s diary adds a reliable, first hand account of the past. As Catherine would have hardly expected other people than herself to be reading the diary it can be assumed that she poured her heart and soul into it so that what is written there is the complete truth according to Catherine. This however also gives us a bias view of the story as we become accustomed to sympathize with Catherine.

    3. How does the portrayal of Hindley and Frances’ relationship contrast with the love between Heathcliff and Cathy?

    Hindley and France’s relationship is more of a childlike infatuation and there appears to be no deep connection between them. Heathcliff and Catherine on the other hand have grown up together, they know each other inside out and their restless, doomed love and untamed passion for one another runs deep in their veins, never to be brought forth until the hour for such words has passed.

    4. How is the extent of Heathcliff’s anguish revealed when he hears of Lockwood’s “dream”?

    When Heathcliff finds out that Lockwood had seen what he claimed to be the ghost of Catherine Earnshaw, Heathcliff sends him from the room and in and in an outburst of passionate love cries out in anguish for the loss both physically and romantically of Catherine.

    5. How is suspense built up in this chapter?

    From the beginning of the chapter, the events taking place start slowly with some nice background reading of Catherine’s diary. Very slowly after the long silence of diary reading the scene starts to change, starting with the tapping of a branch on the window and increasing to eventually conjure a magnificent Gothic spectacle of a ghost and on the opposite end of the chain, Heathcliff turns our suspense into the climax with a barbaric cry of love and call for the return of his lost Catherine.

    Chaps 1-3 Settings & the Gothic

    1. The appearance of the ghost is part of what makes Wuthering Heights a gothic novel. Look up the terms “gothic” and “gothic novel.” What are the characteristics of gothic literature? Which of those characteristics do you see in the first chapters of the novel? How does the setting of the novel relate to its gothic quality? Is the place Wuthering Heights one?

    Gothic: belonging to or redolent of the Dark Ages, Portentously gloomy or horrifying.
    Gothic Literature: a style of literature, which involves elements of both horror and Romance.
    In Gothic literature the setting is usually a gloomy one with the characters in the text mostly being gloomy as well. We see this in the first few chapters of Wuthering Heights very clearly. It is shown through the setting and the actual estate itself of Wuthering Heights. The name itself meaning “windy heights” already starts to chill the bones and that’s even before they start bringing things such as the description of the old decrepit house containing the inhabitants who radiate Gothic features just from their general mannerisms.

    Chapter 4

    1. Why does Emily Brontë choose to change narrators in this chapter? Contrast Nellie and Lockwood’s narrative styles.

    Nellie has a first hand but very bias view of what happened in the early days of Heathcliff and the Earnshaw’s. A lot of what she relays to Lockwood is second hand information on her behalf anyway. Lockwood’s narrative is clear, using the facts from what he reads and hears and stringing them together to form the truth. It is clear through Lockwood constantly repeated things and being corrected that he will not settle for a bias, one sided view but tries to find the true story behind it all.

    2. What picture is built up of the young Heathcliff in this chapter? Why does Nellie liken his history to that of a cuckoo? (You will need to look up cuckoo to answer this question – what did people believe about cuckoos?)

    The picture of Heathcliff built in this chapter is that he doesn’t belong where he is. That he is an orphan and as such has no place in the family but should rather be treated like any other servant. Heathcliff, like a cuckoo egg has been put into another bird’s nest and raised by them instead of it parents. Hindley foremost believes this to be the case and after his fathers death takes this idea to the extreme and treats Heathcliff and little more than a slave.

    3. Do you have more sympathy for Hindley or Heathcliff in this chapter? Why?

    Heathcliff wins my sympathy in this chapter. Although he has come and as a result Mr. Earnshaw has turned from his children and rather to Heathcliff, this is something Heathcliff cannot help. A good man, like Mr. Earnshaw would take in Heathcliff willingly at the very least with open arms and welcome him to the family, however Hindley is too self-centred and will refuse to hear of such things.

    Chapter 5

    1. What do we learn of the young Cathy in this chapter?

    Young Cathy didn’t always do what her father wanted; in fact she was quite a rebellious young girl, high spirited and full of energy and emotion. However she didn’t like to leave her father disappointed in her and as such, whenever she had disappointed him, she’d go that very same night and grovel asking forgiveness and he would submit and forgive readily.

    2. What is Nellie’s opinion of Joseph?

    Nellie is not at all fond of Joseph, She finds his preaching boring and worthless and just generally not worth listening to.

    3. How does Emily Brontë portray the idea of good and evil in this chapter?

    ?

    Chapter 6

    1. “We don’t in general take to foreigners here”. From what you know so far of Wuthering Heights, coupled with Nellie’s hints, what leads us to believe that Frances Earnshaw won’t “last long” at the Heights?

    It is suggested that although Frances is young, she has lead us to think through her actions that she is sick in some way or another. She becomes afraid when she goes the funeral of Mr. Earnshaw and gives the impression that she has a good reason to be fearing death.

    2. Explain the circumstances that encourage Heathcliff and Cathy to grow even closer in this chapter. Describe their relationship.

    In this chapter Heathcliff and Cathy go to the Linton’s and Cathy is attacked by their dog. They also endured the loss of Mr. Earnshaw together and stick together even when Hindley starts his horrific treatment of Heathcliff.

    3. How are the Linton children contrasted with Cathy and Heathcliff in this chapter?

    The Linton children in contrast with Heathcliff and Cathy have everything they could possibly want, a beautiful house, dignified parents and a lot of wealth, however the children don’t have the kind of friendship and matured quality of personality that Heathcliff and Cathy have.

    4. Nellie is Heathcliff’s confidante in this chapter. Why is this an important narrative device in the novel?

    This is an important device as Nellie is the narrator and as such this gives us an insight into the mind of Heathcliff and what he’s thinking, although the retelling of Heathcliff’s thought may be slightly bias coming from Nellie, she couldn’t stray to far from the truth for the sake of his thoughts remaining faithful.

    Chapter 7

    1. How has Cathy’s stay at Thrushcross Grange affected her relationship with Heathcliff?

    Cathy’s stay at Thrushcross Grange turned her somewhat from a person who was content and fun-loving to a lady with manners and looks worthy of Linton. Her personality had changed slightly and Heathcliff and her no longer saw completely eye-to-eye.

    2. Do the reader and Nellie differ in their sympathy for Heathcliff?

    Yes, Nellie had little sympathy for Heathcliff and wouldn’t spare a lot of time for her. She just thought of him as a grubby boy with few manners and a whole lot of problems. The reader however has more sympathy as they can see clearly the treatment of Heathcliff by Hindley and everything else that’s going on in Heathcliff’s life at the time.

    3. What impression of Edgar Linton is conveyed in this chapter?
    Edgar Linton is conveyed as man, who although not rude or purposefully insulting, is rather unthinking. He is conveyed as polite and fairly intelligent though not violent or begrudging.

    4. Is Nellie right in her description of Cathy as “an unfeeling child… so selfish”? Consider the novel as a whole.

    In many ways Cathy is a selfish child but unfeeling would be going to far. Cathy often does things without regard to how it will affect others and does things for her own gain, like marrying Edgar for his wealth and security in society rather than Heathcliff who at the time of her decision is poor. However she is definitely not unfeeling. She feels great love for Heathcliff and is distressed when she agrees to marry Edgar and thus forsake Heathcliff.

    5. What is the effect at the end of the chapter of reverting back to Lockwood’s narrative?

    The effect created is one of giving a break to the story, a rest it the endless telling. It also keeps the story it perspective that is being retold by Nellie and cannot be taken as the gospel truth by the reader as Nellie is bias.

    Chapter 8

    1. How does Dr. Kenneth “the old croaker” fit in with what we’ve come to expect for people in this locality?

    His personality fits with that of those in the locality. Being a croaker, he predicts misfortune and evil rather than hope and luck. This sort of personality fits right into the gothic and archaic way of life we’ve come to expect from the inhabitants of Wuthering Heights and as such the surrounding area with the exception of the Linton’s.

    2. Hindley’s treatment of Heathcliff “was enough to make a fiend of a saint.” With regard to nature vs. nurture debate is it any wonder he turns out as he does?

    No, although you can’t say that it’s Heathcliff’s fault you can’t say that its entirely Hindley’s fault either, but it’s more Hindley’s than anyone else’s however. From Hindley’s harsh treatment of Heathcliff, he grew to hate Hindley and as such hate the surroundings in which he was tormented, although Heathcliff holds onto the place he hates to much because his hate conflicts with his passion for Catherine and his loyalty to the passed Mr. Earnshaw.

    3. Does the reader have any sympathy for Hindley?

    The reader has some sympathy for Hindley in that he has a bad attitude towards Heathcliff and feels as though Heathcliff stole the love of his father from him, however it wasn’t Heathcliff’s doing contrary to popular belief of Hindley. So in this respect the reader feels sympathy for both Heathcliff and Hindley.

    4. In this chapter, Cathy is fifteen. How does Nellie feel about her? Is she justified?

    5. Edgar and Heathcliff couldn’t be more different from one another. Nellie compares Heathcliff to a “bleak, hilly coal country” whilst Edgar is a “beautiful, fertile valley”. Explain in your own words how they are different.

    This is saying that Heathcliff is duller than the average person and more reserved but complicated, with rugged worn looks about him and not a lot of money. However Edgar is simple. One can see into his mind and it is clear what’s going and from the outside Edgar is shown as a rare beauty of a man with wealth and good looks to match.

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